Blood Cancer Treatment in Hyderabad
Blood cancers occur due to abnormal production and the function of your blood cells. Most of these cancers in bone marrow where blood cell is produced. Stem cells in bone marrow mature and develop into three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. In most blood cancers, the normal blood cell development process is interrupted by the uncontrolled growth of an abnormal type of blood cell. These abnormal blood cells, or cancerous cells, prevent blood cell from performing many of its functions, like fighting off infections or preventing serious bleeding.
There are three main groups of blood cancer are leukemia, lymphoma (Hodgkin lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma), myeloma, and Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Treatment for blood cancer depends on the type of cancer, age, how fast the cancer is progressing, where cancer has spread and other factors and some common treatments for blood cancers are chemotherapy, radiotherapy and, in some cases, a stem cell or bone marrow transplant.
Blood Cancer Is of Three Types :
Leukemia – This type of cancer is caused by the rapid production of abnormal blood cells in the bone marrow. These abnormal blood cells affect the bone marrow’s ability of the production of red blood cells and platelets.
Lymphoma – This type of blood cancer affects the lymphatic system, which is responsible for the removal of excess fluids from your body and producing immune cells. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that fights infection. Abnormal lymphocytes become lymphoma cells, which grow uncontrollably in your lymph nodes and other tissues.
Myeloma – This type of blood cancer affects the plasma cells, which are white blood cells responsible for the production of disease-fighting antibodies in the body. Myeloma affects the production of plasma cells which results in weak immune system.
What is leukemia?
Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. There are several broad categories of blood cells, including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets. Generally, leukemia refers to cancers of the WBCs.
WBCs are a vital part of your immune system. They protect your body from invasion by bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as from abnormal cells and other foreign substances. In leukemia, the WBCs don’t function like normal WBCs. They can also divide too quickly and eventually crowd out normal cells.
WBCs are mostly produced in the bone marrow, but certain types of WBCs are also made in the lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland. Once formed, WBCs circulate throughout your body in your blood and lymph (fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system), concentrating in the lymph nodes and spleen.
Risk factors for leukemia
The causes of leukemia aren’t known. However, several factors have been identified which may increase your risk. These include:
A family history of leukemia ;
smoking, which increases your risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
genetic disorders such as Down syndrome
blood disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, which is sometimes called “preleukemia”
previous treatment for cancer with chemotherapy or radiation
exposure to high levels of radiation
exposure to chemicals such as benzene
Types of leukemia
The onset of leukemia can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (slow onset). In acute leukemia, cancer cells multiply quickly. In chronic leukemia, the disease progresses slowly and early symptoms may be very mild.
Leukemia is also classified according to the type of cell. Leukemia involving myeloid cells is called myelogenous leukemia. Myeloid cells are immature blood cells that’d normally become granulocytes or monocytes. Leukemia involving lymphocytes is called lymphocytic leukemia. There are four main types of leukemia:
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) can occur in children and adults. According to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), about 21,000 new cases of AML are diagnosed annually in the United States. This is the most common form of leukemia. The five-year survival rate for AML is 26.9 percent.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) occurs mostly in children. The NCI estimates about 6,000 new cases of ALL are diagnosed annually. The five-year survival rate for ALL is 68.2 percent.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) affects mostly adults. About 9,000 new cases of CML are diagnosed annually, according to the NCI. The five-year survival rate for CML is 66.9 percent.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is most likely to affect people over the age of 55. It’s very rarely seen in children. According to the NCI, about 20,000 new cases of CLL are diagnosed annually. The five-year survival rate for CLL is 83.2 percent.
Hairy cell leukemia is a very rare subtype of CLL. Its name comes from the appearance of the cancerous lymphocytes under a microscope.
What are the symptoms of leukemia?
Fever or chills.
Persistent fatigue, weakness.
Frequent or severe infections.
Losing weight without trying.
Swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen.
Easy bleeding or bruising.
Tiny red spots in your skin (petechiae)
The symptoms of leukemia include
excessive sweating, especially at night (called “night sweats”)
fatigue and weakness that don’t go away with rest
unintentional weight loss
bone pain and tenderness
painless, swollen lymph nodes (especially in the neck and armpits)
enlargement of the liver or spleen
red spots on the skin, called petechiae
bleeding easily and bruising easily
fever or chills
Leukemia can also cause symptoms in organs that have been infiltrated or affected by the cancer cells. For example, if the cancer spreads to the central nervous system, it can cause headaches, nausea and vomiting, confusion, loss of muscle control, and seizures.
Leukemia can also spread to other parts of your body, including: